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Defying Exclusion: Stories and Insights on the Links between Discrimination and Corruption

Corruption and discrimination are each major obstacles to the achievement of sustainable and inclusive development. Until now they have largely been understood in isolation from each other. For the first time, this report identifies and explores the direct, causal relationship and interconnection between them.

Discrimination and corruption enable and exacerbate each other in four distinct ways:

1. Discrimination can result in greater exposure to corruption.

2. Certain forms of corruption are inherently discriminatory.

3. Discrimination can mean that corruption has a disproportionate impact on certain groups.

4. Discrimination presents barriers to challenging corruption, while corruption can obstruct victims of discrimination from accessing justice.

We present evidence through chapters examining the links between discrimination and corruption on the basis of different grounds of discrimination: age; sex; sexual orientation, gender identity and expression; race and ethnicity; and religion or belief.

It is clear that states must recognise the connections between discrimination and corruption and take immediate, targeted and effective actions to tackle these linked problems.

Additionally, civil society, regional and international organisations can and should contribute to improving understanding of the problems arising from discriminatory corruption and countering its effects.

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