This report presents synthesis findings from four case studies developed under the Collective Resolution to Enhance Accountability and Transparency in Emergencies (CREATE) initiative, led by Transparency International. The objective of the studies was to produce an evidence base concerning the risks on aid integrity, in particular corruption risks, as well as prevention and mitigation measures, in relation to the implementation of humanitarian assistance in four complex operational settings: Afghanistan, the response to Ebola in Guinea, southern Somalia, and operations to assist Syrian refugees in Lebanon.
The research consisted of over 500 key-informant interviews and community consultations. These included consultations with a large number and diverse range of international and local aid organisations, donor governments, government actors and private sector representatives, as well as outside experts working on corruption issues. The focus of the research was on the supply chain and service delivery within a few key sectors, including food, shelter, health and protection, as well as cash as a delivery mechanism. The research took place in the capitals of each context as well as in remote provinces and districts. In addition to the interviews and consultations, the report draws on additional materials including an unpublished background report produced for the project.