Overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Madagascar

Filed under - Politics and government

Published on 19 September 2014 as a EU Helpdesk answer
Can you please provide an overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Madagascar? We would be particularly interested to have information on the sectors of natural renewable resources and of extractive industries.


1. Overview of corruption in Madagascar
2. Corruption and governance in the renewable resources and extractives sectors
3. Overview of anti-corruption efforts in Madagascar
4. References


With the elections in late 2013, Madagascar ended a five-year transitional period that was characterised by institutional decay and rampant corruption. International governance indicators echo this trend with significant declines in terms of rule of law and control of corruption since the beginning of the political crisis in 2009.

Madagascar’s political system has historically been marked by a strong executive power that undermines the separation of powers and the independence of the judiciary. Political contests concern personal relations and influence rather than actual policy, and clientelism and favouritism are common features. Rent-seeking tendencies have increasingly emerged, fuelled by financial gains linked to the discovery of oil reserves. Bureaucratic corruption is as common as political corruption but the latter is only rarely prosecuted.

The transitional government has failed to stop the illegal trade in rare woods and minerals. High ranking officials are allegedly involved in this trafficking scheme.

The former government, led by Marc Ravalomanana, had taken significant steps to prevent and combat corruption (creating an anti-corruption commission for example), but anti-graft efforts have been declining since the military coup in 2009. Moreover, the country still lacks some fundamental governance safeguards, such as a freedom of information law or whistleblowing protection.


Due to the recent political change in Madagascar, it should be noted that many elements in this document refer to the period preceding the establishment of the new government in 2014. The new government has stated its commitment to many anti-corruption efforts, the implementation of which is yet to be seen.

Author(s): Sofia Wickberg, tihelpdesk@transparency.org
Reviewed by: Marie Chêne, Chantal Uwimana, Transparency International
Publication date: 19 September 2014
Number: 1426

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Country / Territory - Madagascar   
Region - Sub-Saharan Africa   
Language(s) - English   
Tags - Extractive industries   |   Illegal timber