TI Report: Emerging economic giants show high levels of corporate bribery overseas

Construction, real estate, oil and gas sectors most prone to corruption

Issued by Transparency International Secretariat



Translations: FR | ES


Companies based in emerging economic giants, such as China, India and Russia, are perceived to routinely engage in bribery when doing business abroad, according to Transparency International’s 2008 Bribe Payers Index (BPI), released today.

Key findings

Belgium and Canada shared first place in the 2008 BPI with a score of 8.8 out of a very clean 10, indicating that Belgian and Canadian firms are seen as least likely to bribe abroad. The Netherlands and Switzerland shared third place on the index, each with a score of 8.7. At the other end of the spectrum, Russia ranked last with a score of 5.9, just below China (6.5), Mexico (6.6) and India (6.8).

The BPI also shows public works and construction companies to be the most corruption-prone when dealing with the public sector, and most likely to exert undue influence on the policies, decisions and practices of governments.

For too many, bribery remains routine business practice

“The BPI provides evidence that a number of companies from major exporting countries still use bribery to win business abroad, despite awareness of its damaging impact on corporate reputations and ordinary communities,” said Transparency International Chair, Huguette Labelle. “The inequity and injustice that corruption causes makes it vital for governments to redouble their efforts to enforce existing laws and regulations on foreign bribery and for companies to adopt effective anti-bribery programmes. In this spirit, all major exporting countries should commit to the provisions of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.”

TI’s 2008 BPI ranks 22 leading international and regional exporting countries by the tendency of their firms to bribe abroad. The combined global exports of goods and services and outflows of foreign direct investment of these 22 countries represented 75 percent of the world total in 2006. The 2008 BPI is based on the responses of 2,742 senior business executives from companies in 26 developed and developing countries, chosen by the volume of their imports and inflows of foreign direct investment.

Bribery in different industries

The Bribe Payers Survey, which serves as the basis for the BPI, also looks at the likelihood of firms in 19 specific sectors to engage in bribery. In the first of two new sectoral rankings, companies in public works contracts and construction; real estate and property development; oil and gas; heavy manufacturing; and mining were seen to bribe officials most frequently. The cleanest sectors, in terms of bribery of public officials, were identified as information technology, fisheries, and banking and finance.

A second sectoral ranking evaluates the likelihood of companies from the 19 sectors to engage in state capture, whereby parties attempt to wield undue influence on government rules, regulations and decision-making through private payments to public officials. Public works contracts and construction; oil and gas; mining; and real estate and property development were seen as the sectors whose companies were most likely to use legal or illegal payments to influence the state. The banking and finance sector is seen to perform considerably worse in terms of state capture than in willingness to bribe public officials, meaning that its companies may exert considerable undue influence on regulators, a significant finding in light of the ongoing global financial crisis.

The sectors where companies are seen as least likely to exert undue pressure on the public policy process are agriculture, fisheries and light manufacturing.

Conclusion: Better global standards are possible and imperative

While most of the world’s wealthiest countries already subscribe to a ban on foreign bribery, under the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, there is little awareness of the convention among the senior business executives interviewed in the Bribe Payers Survey. Governments have a key role to play in ensuring that foreign bribery is stopped at the source – and by making good on commitments to prevent and prosecute such practices.

“The unfolding financial crisis has shown us just how integrated the world’s markets have become. Accountability must be guaranteed across borders, include improved risk management and reach all the way down a company’s supply chain,” said Cobus de Swardt, TI Managing Director. “Businesses face a complex challenge, but efforts to improve labour practices, for instance, by working with intermediaries, suppliers and affiliates, show that there is no excuse to not extend anti-bribery standards globally in a similar fashion.”

Rank Country / territory BPI 2008 Score Respondents Standard Deviation Confidence Interval 95%
  Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 Belgium 8.8 252 2.00 8.5 9.0
1 Canada 8.8 264 1.80 8.5 9.0
3 Netherlands 8.7 255 1.98 8.4 8.9
3 Switzerland 8.7 256 1.98 8.4 8.9
5 Germany 8.6 513 2.14 8.4 8.8
5 United Kingdom 8.6 506 2.10 8.4 8.7
5 Japan 8.6 316 2.11 8.3 8.8
8 Australia 8.5 240 2.23 8.2 8.7
9 France 8.1 462 2.48 7.9 8.3
9 Singapore 8.1 243 2.60 7.8 8.4
9 United States 8.1 718 2.43 7.9 8.3
12 Spain 7.9 355 2.49 7.6 8.1
13 Hong Kong 7.6 288 2.67 7.3 7.9
14 South Africa 7.5 177 2.78 7.1 8.0
14 South Korea 7.5 231 2.79 7.1 7.8
14 Taiwan 7.5 287 2.76 7.1 7.8
17 Italy 7.4 421 2.89 7.1 7.7
17 Brazil 7.4 255 2.78 7.0 7.7
19 India 6.8 257 3.31 6.4 7.3
20 Mexico 6.6 123 2.97 6.1 7.2
21 China 6.5 634 3.35 6.2 6.8
22 Russia 5.9 114 3.66 5.2 6.6

 

This table shows the 2008 BPI results along with additional statistical information that indicates the level of agreement among respondents about the country’s performance, and the precision of the results. Scores range from 0 to 10, indicating the likelihood of firms headquartered in these countries to bribe when operating abroad. The higher the score for the country, the lower the likelihood of companies from this country to engage in bribery when doing business abroad.

The standard deviation is provided to give an indication of the degree of agreement among respondents in relation to each country: the smaller the standard deviation, the broader the consensus among respondents. The confidence intervals show the range of minimum and maximum values where with 95% of confidence the true value of the index lies.

###

Transparency International is the civil society organisation leading the global fight against corruption.

For sectoral tables and all other data, please see the full BPI Report, also available at http://www.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2008/bpi_2008


For any press enquiries please contact

In London
Gypsy Guillén Kaiser/Jesse Garcia
Mobile: +49-176-101-21-661

In Berlin
T: +49-30-34-38-20-666
E: .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

Latest

Support Transparency International

Anti-Corruption Award 2018 - Nominations Open!

Our Anti-Corruption Award recognises the courage and determination of the many individuals and organisations fighting corruption around the world.

Nominate an anti-corruption hero today! 

Comment gagner la lutte contre la corruption en Afrique

Aujourd’hui est la Journée africaine de lutte contre la corruption – une occasion opportunité pour reconnaitre le progrès dans la lutte contre la corruption en Afrique et le travail significatif qui reste encore à accomplir.

How to win the fight against corruption in Africa

African Anti-Corruption Day is an important opportunity to recognise both the progress made in the fight against corruption in Africa and the significant work still left to do.

Increasing accountability and safeguarding billions in climate finance

In December 2015, governments from around the world came together to sign the Paris Agreement, agreeing to tackle climate change and keep global warming under two degrees centigrade. They committed to spend US$100 billion annually by 2020 to help developing countries reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and protect themselves against the potentially devastating effects of climate change.

After Gürtel, what next for Spain’s struggle with political corruption?

At the start of June, the Spanish parliament voted to oust Prime Minister Rajoy after his political party was embroiled in the biggest corruption scandal in Spain’s democratic history. At this critical juncture in Spain’s struggle with political corruption, Transparency International urges all parties to join forces against impunity and support anti-corruption efforts in public life.

Risk of impunity increases with outcome of Portuguese-Angolan corruption trial

A verdict last week by the Lisbon Court of Appeals in the trial of former Angolan vice president Manuel Vicente has disappointed hopes for a triumph of legal due process over politics and impunity. It also has worrying implications for the independence of Portugal’s judiciary.

The UK just made it harder for the corrupt to hide their wealth offshore

If counted together, the United Kingdom and its Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies would rank worst in the world for financial secrecy. Fortunately, this could soon change.

The new IMF anti-corruption framework: 3 things we’ll be looking for a year from now

Last Sunday, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) unveiled its long-awaited framework for “enhanced” engagement with countries on corruption and governance issues. Here are three aspects we at Transparency International will be looking at closely in coming months as the new policy is rolled out.

Social Media

Follow us on Social Media