The report in detail

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Hear perspectives on corruption in Europe from Lithuania, Greece and Ireland.


Note: Find updates from the report's launch at: http://www.transparency.org/news/feature/enis

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is the report about?
  2. How was the report produced?
  3. What countries are covered by the report?
  4. What is a National Integrity System?
  5. How is a National Integrity System assessed?
  6. Can I compare the results of national integrity system assessments across countries?
  7. Who is funding the research?


1. What is the report about?

The report identifies key cross-cutting gaps in the National Integrity Systems of 25 European states.

It contains a wealth of new information about how the countries are vulnerable to corruption, the institutions most and least effective in preventing graft, and the main areas of corruption risk for Europe.

It also sheds light on promising practices from across the region, provides for an EU dimension, and makes a series of detailed recommendations about how these key corruption risks should be addressed.

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2. How was the report produced?

The report synthesises the findings of 25 National Integrity System assessments carried out across Europe in 2011. These assessments were implemented in-country and were coordinated by Transparency International’s national chapters and partners.

In each country, a lead researcher or a group of researchers, in consultation with an expert advisory group and the national chapter, conducted the research based on National Integrity System methodology. These results were then analysed for key findings and trends and were used in preparing the current report. Additional secondary sources from Transparency International and other organisations were also drawn upon where relevant.

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3. What countries are covered by the report?

The report covers 25 countries, of which 23 are EU Member States. These include Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK.

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4. What is a National Integrity System?

The National Integrity System evaluates key ‘pillars’ in a country’s governance system, both in terms of their internal corruption risks and their contribution to fighting corruption in society at large.

When all the pillars in a National Integrity System are functioning well, corruption remains in check. If some or all of the pillars wobble, these weaknesses can allow corruption to thrive and damage a society.

Generally, the National Integrity System is considered to be comprised of the following pillar institutions: legislature (Parliament), executive (government), judiciary, public sector, law enforcement, electoral bodies, Ombudsman, audit institutions, anti-corruption agencies, political parties, media, civil society and business. However, these can be amended or added to depending on the local context.

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5. How is a National Integrity System assessed?

Each of the institutions in the National Integrity System is examined along three key dimensions essential for their preventing corruption – overall capacity for action (resources, independence); internal governance (transparency, integrity and accountability); and the extent to which the institution fulfils its assigned role in the anti-corruption system.

The analysis is carried out both for the formal framework of each institution as well as actual practice, highlighting the discrepancies between formal provisions and the reality on the ground. This research is also posited within a broader framework of overall political, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions within which the institutions operate. Overall, some 150 indicators are used in making the assessment.

The actual process of analysis is undertaken via a consultative approach, involving the key anti-corruption agents in government, civil society, the business community and other sectors.

The final conclusions are drawn together in a comprehensive national report to build momentum, political will and civic pressure for relevant reform initiatives.

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6. Can I compare the results of national integrity system assessments across countries?

The qualitative nature of the reports bound by a tight framework is ideally suited for identifying key trends, promising practice and urgent areas for action. However, given the unique context of each country and the nationally focused approach to assessment, it would be inappropriate to create detailed rankings of countries or to compare different countries' individual indicator scores, where these exist.

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7. Who is funding the research?

The project enjoys the overall financial support of European Commission DG Home Affairs, Swedish Lotteries Foundation and the European Economic Area and Norway Grants. Further support is provided at country level by a variety of individual organisations.

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The report

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Methodology note

Learn more about the methodology behind the National Integrity System assessments that form the basis of Money, Politics, Power: Corruption Risks in Europe.

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