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Exporting Corruption

Data - Exporting Corruption

Corruption offences

NB – these definitions rely on the text of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), which we have reformulated for ease of reading. Matching national criminal code provisions vary from country to country.

Grand corruption

Any of the offences in UNCAC Articles 15-25 when committed as part of a scheme involving a high level public official and comprising a significant misappropriation of public funds or resources, or severely restricting the exercise of the most basic human rights of a substantial part of the population or of a vulnerable group. Read detailed notes on Transparency International’s definition of grand corruption.

Country Albania Bosnia & Herzegovina Kosovo Montenegro North Macedonia Serbia Turkey
Suspicions raised publicly Not an official phase in the proceedings Not an official phase in the proceedings Not an official phase in the proceedings Not an official phase in the proceedings Not an official phase in the proceedings Not an official phase in the proceedings Not an official phase in the proceedings
Official detection by authorities Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Preliminary investigation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Formal decision on investigation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Investigation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pressing charges/indictment Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Court accepts the case Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1st instance procedure Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1st instance verdict Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1st instance appeal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2nd instance procedure Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2nd instance verdict Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2nd instance appeal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3rd instance procedure Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3rd instance verdict Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Extraordinary remedies/procedure if applicable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Enforcement of verdict Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Phases of criminal procedures

NB – criminal procedure laws are complex. This glossary serves only to identify the main phases and details of criminal procedures and help the reader to compare progress in various procedures.